Recalls in Review: A monthly spotlight on trending regulatory enforcement issues at the CPSC.
As people increasingly turn to online shopping over traditional brick-and-mortar stores, consumers, safety advocacy groups, and regulators alike have begun to pay more attention to the authenticity and safety of products. One particular concern is the presence of lead in consumer products, which is toxic if ingested and can cause adverse health issues.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission has regulated lead in consumer products since the 1970s. However, the Commission’s ability to regulate lead in children’s products was strengthened in 2008 with the enactment of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (“CPSIA”). CPSIA Section 101 limits lead content in accessible component parts children’s products (15 U.S.C. § 1278a). Section 101 and CPSC regulations (16 CFR Part 1303) also govern the use of lead in paints and other surface coatings on all children’s products and certain furniture products. Movable pieces of furniture that contain surface coatings—such as beds, bookcases, and chairs—are covered by the regulation.
The CPSC very actively regulates and monitors products for violations of the federal safety standards regarding lead. Nearly four hundred lead-related recalls have been conducted, with 317 of those recalls occurring since 2001. As you can see from the below chart, the Commission paid great attention to excessive levels of lead in consumer products from 2006 to 2010. The steep increase in lead-related recalls resulted in the enactment of the CPSIA in 2008.
Shockingly, the issue of lead in children’s products persists despite aggressive Commission action and strong congressional mandates. In just the first two months of 2021, the CPSC issued 16 notices of violation for excess lead in children’s products. Most of those actions involved publication of the product at issue as well as an immediate stop sale and agreement to correct future production but did not involve a consumer level recall.
Although not nearly as drastic as the last “enforcement spike,” the Commission may be turning its focus towards lead in consumer products once again. Nine lead-related recalls were conducted in 2020, which is up from only one such recall in 2019, six in 2018, and four in 2017. This increase occurred despite a sharp reduction in the overall number of toys recalled in fiscal year 2020—discussed in a November 2020 CPSC News Release.
Lead-related recalls have targeted a wide variety of products over the years. Unsurprisingly, the most commonly recalls product types include toys (37%) and children’s jewelry (25%). Other more frequently recalled product types include furniture, clothing, sports equipment, and art supplies.
According to information provided by the CPSC recall announcements, seventy percent of the recalls address violations of standard for lead in paint and surface coatings and thirty percent address violations of the standard for total lead content. In addition to addressing lead paint violations, one 2006 recall also addresses a laceration hazard and a 2014 recall addresses choking and injury hazards.
The public can monitor children’s product recalls on CPSC.gov or SaferProducts.gov for violations of the federal lead standards. According to the CPSC recall announcements, the vast majority of products (97%) are recalled despite having no reported incidents involving consumers. Of the ten recalls that had reported incidents involving consumers, six involved reports of elevated blood-lead levels in children, two involved reports of lead poisoning, and two involved reports of the product breaking.
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About Recalls in Review: As with all things, but particularly in retail, it is important to keep your finger on the pulse of what’s trending with consumers. Regulatory enforcement is not different—it can also be subject to pop culture trends and social media fervor. And this makes sense, as sales increase for a “trending” product, the likelihood of discovering a product defect or common consumer misuse also increases. Regulators focus on popular products when monitoring the marketplace for safety issues.
As product safety lawyers, we follow the products that are likely targets for regulatory attention. We share our observations with you through Recalls in Review.